CSBA Testimony before the House Armed Services Seapower and Projection Forces Subcommittee on “ Game Changers- Undersea Warfare
The same advancements that are improving ASW capabilities will also enable a new generation of sophisticated counter-detection technologies and techniques. For example, against passive sonar a submarine or unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) could emit sound to reduce its radiated noise using a technique similar to that of noise cancelling headphones. Against active
sonars, undersea platforms could—by themselves or in concert with UUVs and other stationary or floating systems—conduct acoustic jamming or decoy operations similar to those done by electronic warfare systems against radar.
New power and control technologies are improving the endurance and reliability of UUVs, which will likely be able to operate unrefueled for months within the next decade. The autonomy of UUVs will remain constrained, however, by imperfect situational awareness. For example, while a UUV may have the computer algorithms and control systems to avoid safety hazards or security threats, it may not be able to understand with certainty where hazards and threats are and what they are doing. In the face of uncertain data, a human operator can make choices and be accountable for the results. Commanders may not want to place the same responsibility in the hands of a UUV control system— or its programmer.
As sensors and processing improve, UUVs will progressively gain more autonomy in operating safely and securely while accomplishing their missions. In the meantime, the U.S. Navy can expect to shift some operations to unmanned systems for which the consequences of an incorrect decision are limited to damage and loss of the vehicle, rather than loss of life or unplanned military escalation. These missions could include deploying payloads such as sensors or inactive mines, conducting surveillance or surveys, or launching UAVs for electronic warfare. For missions where a human decision-maker is needed, unmanned systems can operate in concert with submarines or use radio communications to regularly “check-in” with commanders.
The long, cylindrical streamlined torpedo shape is common to many underwater vehicles (UUV). And since the standard submarine torpedo tube is 533mm in diameter, many systems intended for delivery using a submarine are limited to that diameter. There are inherent payload and energy storage limitations imposed by the maximum diameter of the 533mm vehicle. But while many UUvs with naval applications available today have the shape and diameter of a torpedo there are new systems that are considerably larger. Modularity and open architecture mean that basic platforms can be configured for civilian or military use.More
The goal of this program is to develop and demonstrate power system technologies capable of the performance specifications and characteristics contained in Tables 1-4. Proposals shall describe a complete system concept, provide a detailed scope of work for the development of the core technology(ies) and conduct integrated bench-top system testing to achieve a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of no less than 4 (Phase I Base). In addition to the specific S&T performance capabilities, proposers are expected to conduct a safety analysis (Preliminary Hazard/Safety Analysis (PHSA), reference in Appendix B) of the system energy technology concept. Any proposal that does not provide a specific full system solution, as well as a safety analysis, will not be considered.
PLEASE NOTE: NUCLEAR POWER OPTIONS WILL NOT BE CONSIDERED FOR THIS EFFORT
Background: Greater breadth of mission profiles for current and future Naval UUVs require longer endurance stealthy propulsion systems that extend the current capability of 10-40 hours to several days or weeks (UUV Master Plan; www.navy.mil/navydata/technology/uuvmp.pdf). Current and future anticipated technologies based solely on high energy density batteries will not provide adequate endurance for the missions envisioned for the LDUUV. Solutions beyond battery-only technology capabilities are required.More
The Large Displacement Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Innovative Naval Prototype technology BAA will develop the critical technologies needed to enable UUVs to operate and survive in the littorals for 70+ days. The LDUUV is a pier- launched and recovered UUV (without the need for ship-launch or recovery) with the capability to transit in the open ocean and conduct over-the-horizon missions in littoral waters. This system will enable the extension of Navy platform sensing capability over the horizon and extend its influence. The creation of this UUV is intended to act as a significant force multiplier for the US Navy and will help close Warfighter gaps in a cost-effective manner. Two technology areas have been identified as critical to achieving this goal. These areas are Autonomy and Endurance Technologies.More
Submarines offer a capability to deploy and retrieve unmanned undersea vehicles (UUV) in littoral and blue water Areas of Operation while avoiding detection. Integration of the submarine and UUV through a launch and recovery mechanism offers unique challenges with respect to host submarine safety, UUV recovery, UUV replenishment and life-cycle costs. The Capstone team elicited launch and recovery system requirements from stakeholders and conceived four (4) advanced alternatives and a baseline alternative considered to meet the requirements. Through functional, cost, risk, modeling and qualitative analysis, this study assessed the value of each alternative to stakeholders. Of the concept alternatives explored, a high tech option featuring a carbon fiber structure, electromechanical pulse launch and recovery device and proximity vice contact battery charging and UUV stowage features provided the best value to the stakeholders for the investment. These results highlighted characteristics, including maintenance considerations, upgradeability, design for reliability and design for universal applications considered paramount for a successful system. Project lessons learned uncovered significant risk due to instability of UUV requirements as well as certification issues which adversely affect a submarine/UUV integration project. Early communications between key stakeholders must effectively address these short-comings.
The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is interested in receiving proposals for an energy dense air –independent, rechargeable/refuelable energy system for a long duration unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV).
The goal of this program is to develop and demonstrate power system technologies capable of the performance specifications and characteristics contained in Tables 1-3 with the purpose of transitioning the technology to the Navy. Proposals shall describe a complete system concept, provide a detailed scope of work for the development of the core technology(ies) and conduct integrated bench-top system testing to achieve a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of no less than 4 (Phase I Base). In addition to the specific S&T performance capabilities, proposers are expected to conduct a safety analysis of the system energy technology concept. Any proposal that does not provide a specific full system solution, as well as a safety analysis, will not be considered.
PLEASE NOTE: NUCLEAR POWER OPTIONS WILL NOT BE CONSIDERED FOR THIS EFFORT.
It is anticipated that awards will be in the form of cost-type contracts, specifically Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contracts with cost-type Task Orders under those IDIQ contract vehicles, with the evaluation criteria provided in Section V of this BAA.
The three (3) planned phases, Phase I Base, Phase I Option, and Phase II, are covered by this BAA, and the objectives for each are described below. Only full technical and cost proposals for Phase I Base and Phase I Option are being requested at this time. However, consistent with the BAA requirement for a full system description, proposers must include a preliminary description of their anticipated Phase II effort together with a ROM Phase II cost estimate. Decisions for continuation to Phase I Option and Phase II will be based on the degree to which Phase I Base results meet key metrics as described in the following section below and the proposed path to achieve objective metrics.
Response Date: 16 May 2011More
LDUUV INP BAA Structure
The BAA will have three sections:
Each of the three sections will be evaluated separately. You may propose to one or multiple sections of the BAA . If an organization proposes to multiple sections of the BAA, a separate proposal is needed for each section. Proposals must clearly mark which section they proposing to and follow the BAA guidelines for that section. A single proposal for the entire BAA will be considered non responsive.
An organization may propose to a component or all components in each section
ONR is focused on finding the best technologies available. Therefore, this BAA will focus on component technology proposal and not system level proposal.
The purpose of this thesis is to study the manning and maintainability requirements of a submarine unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) program. This case study reviews current commercial and military applications of UUVs and applies their principles to the missions of the Navy’s submarine force. Past and current UUV efforts are lacking requirements documents and the formal systems engineering process necessary to produce a successful program of record. Therefore, they are not being funded for use by the war-fighter. The Navy must develop formal concepts of operations (CONOPS) for the missions and systems that it wants to produce and allow industry to begin development for a formal future UUV program. Furthermore, the military has developed countless unmanned systems that have been developed for use in the water, on the ground and in the air, from which the Navy can apply important lessons learned. Lastly, analysis suggests that the Navy should continue to support the use of a submarine detachment for operation and maintainability of future vehicle programs.More
Energy Storage is a key Issue for Long Endurance autonomous underwater vehicles. Mission duration, speed through the water and sensor and payload capabilities are constrained by the energy available, which in turn is governed by the characteristics of the energy source or sources and the mass and volumn that the vehicle designer can devote to the energy system. Tensioned against these technical issues are those of cost, operational life, ease of use, maintainability, safety, securty and continuity of supply of the items forming the energy system. This paper focuses on primary and secondary electrochemical batteries, how existing vehicles have constructed their energy storage systems and seeks to establish whether electrochemical cells alone will be able to provide the necessary energy at an affordable cost for future long endurance AUV's and the missions being considered.More
The primary goal of this technology assessment is to provide an initial evaluation and technology screening for the application of a Fuel Cell Energy/Power System (FCEPS) to the propulsion of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV). The impetus for this technology assessment is the expectation that an FCEPS has the potential to significantly increase the energy storage in an UUV, when compared to other refuelable Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) energy/power systems, e.g., such as those based on rechargeable (“secondary”) batteries. If increased energy availability is feasible, the FCEPS will enable greater mission duration (range) and/or higher performance capabilities within a given mission. A secondary goal of this report is to propose a design process for an FCEPS within the UUV application.
This executive summary is an overview of the findings in the attached main report body (“UUV FCEPS Technology Assessment and Design Process”) which provides a complete technology assessment and design process report on available UUV FCEPS technology, design methodology, and concepts. The report is limited to the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell (FC) operating on hydrogen and oxygen.More
This paper provides a technology assessment for an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) fuel cell energy/power system, including design methodology and design concepts. The design concepts are based on the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operating on hydrogen and oxygen. The technology assessment method presented is a holistic approach which combines alternative hydrogen and oxygen storage (and fuel cell system) options to provide the highest specific energy and energy density – within the constraints of the UUV application. Using this method, some surprising combinations appear as the theoretical “winners” for maximum energy storage within the application
constraints of the UUV.
The Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) Program Manager for Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUVs) (PMS 403) requested the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Undersea Warfare Division conduct a study on the potential for a large displacement UUV to be commercially designed for dual use such that it had commercial enterprise viability and also be a platform to test military payloads during periodic fleet battle experiments.
(1) The UUV is an important and versatile transformational element that can bring unique capabilities to the Navy of the future, particularly in pre-emptive and first response. It has the potential to become an essential part in the Navy’s FORCEnet concept in providing real-time information to gain an asymmetric advantage.
(2) Realization of the full potential of the UUV as a truly Autonomous Undersea Vehicle (AUV) in warfare will begin with a transition to a large displacement vehicle. The capability of small displacement UUVs will greatly limit what UUVs can provide as multi-mission assets and limit their true autonomy. Larger displacement UUVs must be integrated into new platform designs such that they can be viable organic assets. Utility as a force multiplier must be evident or the large footprint of a large displacement UUV and its support equipment will not be allocated space in future warship designs.
(3) The expanding commercial market must be leveraged to ensure that new systems can be developed in an affordable manner, using commercial standards. An expanding commercial market enables companies to provide systems that have military application while at the same time being commercially marketable.
Technical market research on a number of existing UUV programs provided information to assess our business cases from a broad range of designers, manufacturers, missions and users. They ranged from large Defense suppliers to small research companies, Navy and academic research laboratories. The researched historical programs revealed, many successes and failures, albeit with limited operational missions and customers. These programs provided
insight into the development and analysis of business cases.
Critical success factors and barriers. We found that the commercial market for AUVs would probably be increasing in robustness in the next five to ten years; however, competition, particularly foreign, would be keen with more commercial firms entering the marketplace.
Potential UUV Business Cases. The team postulated and analyzed a family of cases. These included:
(1) Traditional Government Procurement,
(2) Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Vehicle with a Short Term Government Lease,
(3) A COTS Vehicle Modified for Navy Use with a Long-Term Lease, and,
(4) Commercial-Navy Enterprise Partnership. The analysis of these cases included Cost, Technical, Schedule, and Programmatic factors. These were further broken down into sub-factors. Costs included development, construction
supportability, operation, damage//loss, indemnification and cost risk.
Technical factors included Common standards for payload flexibility, vehicle standards, operational requirements, operational security, and technical risk. Schedule factors included time to field the system, operational schedule and vehicle availability, and schedule risk.More
Large Diameter Vehicle ListingMore
Making submarines quiet, efficient, and effective is our main mission at the Navy’s Acoustic Research Detachment (ARD) at Bayview, Idaho. As an integral part of the Navy’s Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) community – namely, the Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center under the Naval Sea Systems Command – we execute this mission by operating large-scale submarine models on three ranges in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.More
Abstract - The C. S. Draper Laboratory, Inc. (Draper) recently completed the at-sea test phase of the Autonomous Minehunting and Mapping Technologies (AMMT) Program for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The primary objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate advanced minehunting technologies that will enable Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUVs) to clandestinely survey an undersea area for mines and collect data for post mission mapping of the surveyed area. The survey data must be of sufficient quality to support selection of an amphibious operating area and subsequent neutralization of mine or obstacle threats.
As integration contractor for the AMMT Program, Draper modified one of DARPA’s existing UUVs; which was previously designed and built by Draper, and used for DARPA’s Mine Search System Program. State-of-the-art technologies in the areas of Sonar Mapping, Navigation, Acoustic Communications, Imaging, and Mission Planning were incorporated into the AMMT vehicle, resulting in a system having the capability to perform an autonomous survey and meet program objectives. The vehicle was subsequently tested at-sea to demonstrate the advanced minehunting technologies and concepts.
This paper provides an overview of the AMMT Program and describes the development and integration of the technologies requiredMore