The Need for a full complement of oceanographic research assets and infrastructure to address critical environmental and societal issues relating to our oceans has been well-defined by a number of Federal agencies. Global Oceans presents here a new model for optimizing an old idea: the chartering of chartering non-research vessels for scientific research to fill infrastructure gaps and augment existing resources. The distinguishing qualities of this model are that it is both Adaptable to the science needs of each cruise ans Scalable globally, including to remote and understudied geographic regions. It is demonstrated here that the Global Oceans model accomplishes these objectives in a way that is functionally and operationally on a par with dedicated research vesels.More
The U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System, or IOOS®, is a vast, coordinated network of people and technology working together to deliver data on our coastal waters and oceans. Sponsored by NOAA, this system is a collaboration of the data and work of partners from federal, regional, private sector, and academic organizations.IOOS partners collect coastal and marine data — water temperature, water level, currents, winds, waves, and more — using satellites, buoys, tide gauges, radar stations, underwater vehicles, and a bunch of other high-tech tools. This ocean data is then turned into information that people can use, often in the form of forecasts and products designed to track, predict, manage, adapt, and respond to changes in our marine environment. Here’s what’s new on IOOS websites representing regions around the nation:More
The Ocean Observatories Initiative: a National Science Foundation-funded program intended to conduct a top-to-bottom study of ocean activities over the span of up to three decades.
The OOI consists of two large arrays of systems, one on the East Coast of the United States, about 80 miles south of Martha’s Vineyard, Mass., and one on the West Coast, near Oregon and Washington.
The East Coast array, known as the Pioneer Array, is located at the continental shelf break, where water depths drop from about 100 meters to more than 500 meters in a distance as short as 40 kilometers. It’s a boundary region between cool coastal waters and warmer offshore and Gulf Stream waters. The Pioneer Array includes three surface moorings and seven profiler moorings mounted in waters from 95 meters to 480 meters (311 to 1,575 feet) deep. The profilers, each packed with a variety of sensors, will travel up and down the mooring lines to study the vertical columns of water, measuring such things as oxygen content, water velocity and salinity.
The Pioneer Array will also include six gliders traveling in a saw-tooth pattern between the surface and near the seafloor, along the continental shelf waters. Each will carry five instruments, including ones to measure temperature, pressure and photosynthetically available radiation. Teledyne Webb, a pioneer in gliders (see Timeline on Page 28), has been tapped to provide Slocum gliders customized to the OOI mission, with production deliveries scheduled for 2012.
The array will also include three autonomous underwater vehicles that will travel along the shelf break frontal system, also traveling in a saw-tooth pattern and carry similar instruments. Hydroid has been tapped to provide its Remus 600 AUVs for that work; OOI has awarded it a $1 million contract for initial design work for the AUVs, with production contracts to follow.
The West Coast array, named the Endurance Array, is based off the coasts of Oregon and Washington and consists of three fixed platform sites, at 25-, 80- and 500-meter depths. It also has something unique: two cables that deliver power to nodes and instruments under the sea and high-speed data back to land.More
We have been developing a smart sensor web that combines many of the essential elements of an ocean observing system: a mix of fixed and mobile in-si tu sensors and NASA satellite sensor s that perform a combination of spatial and temporal sampling; and an ocean model, embodying all our best and current knowledge of the physics, embedded in a data assimilation framework, that can be used in an adaptive sampling mode to jointly optimize sampling and resource allocation for improved science data.
For all the pieces to work together, the power , communications, and timing network infrastructure must be in place, linking the web between the in-situ and space-based sensors.
We report here on the development of various elements of such a sensor web: (a) a cable-connected mooring system with a profiler under real-time control with inductive battery charging; (b) a glider with integrated acoustic communications and broadband receiving capability; (c) satellite sensor elements; (d) an integrated acoustic navigation and communication network; and (e) a predictive model via the Regional Ocean Modeling
The Coastal Observatory Research Array (CORA) Workshop (Chicago IL, 12 - 13 November 2003) was convened specifically to develop consensus regarding the design of coastal observatories. The goal of the workshop was to
provide an overall vision of the mix of required coastal Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) elements, thereby providing a framework upon which future implementation plans could be built.