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Unmanned and underneath: Stay in the know about underwater drones

October 16, 2016
Gettinger D, Unmanned and underneath: Stay in the know about underwater drones, Bard University, Oct 16, 2016

Unmanned submersibles could provide a low-cost alternative to manned platforms for missions that are particularly dangerous, like minesweeping, or for mission that are tedious, like patrolling. UUVs, particularly those envisioned by DARPA, could also be a way to assert military presence in an area that is difficult to reach or geopolitically contentious. Like the minesweeper concepts, UUV platforms could be built into the capabilities of existing manned platforms like the Littoral Combat Ship or submarines. Alternatively, larger UUVs may be deployed from ports and conduct missions independent from manned ships.

However, as a 2009 RAND study of UUV systems pointed out, some of the Navy’s proposed UUV missions were not practicable and remain out of reach. Issues with reliability, specifically within the realms of power systems and underwater communications, suggested to the RAND researchers that the technology was not quite mature enough. The controversy over the Remote Minehunting System is one example of how the Navy has struggled to develop an adequate countermine alternative to minesweepers and to successfully sell UUV technology to lawmakers on Capitol Hill. While UUVs present significant advantages in terms of cost and safety over manned platforms, it will be some years before UUVs are accepted into the fleet.

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UUVs rise to the surface

July 1, 2012
frink S, Special Report: UUvs rise to the surface, Military and Aerospace Electronics, July 1 2012

Unmanned underwater vehicles are becoming feasible for a wide variety of applications, from autonomous ship hull inspection to oil and gas exploration, while military leaders are developing UUVs for long-endurance underwater intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions.

Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) in the past have been niche machines used for research and specific pre-programmed tasks. The difficulties of building and operating these submersibles made them less useful than their airborne and land-bound kin. With technology constantly moving forward, however, UUVs are expanding into the mainstream with the ability to complete a wider variety of missions than their research-specific predecessors.

UUVs face a unique challenge that other unmanned vehicles do not: the ocean. This is a corrosive environment in which high pressure often can be present. Marine animals as small as microorganisms and as large as whales can interfere with operation. In the ocean, communications are virtually non-existent, and ruggedizing these underwater craft, without exception, means they must be either waterproof, airtight, or both. As a result, UUVs need to be largely autonomous, able to withstand the rigors of the marine environment, and be among the most power-efficient vehicles designed.

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Unmanned Underwater Vehicles is bigger better or smaller smarter?

June 1, 2012
Unmanned Underwater Vehicles is bigger better or smaller smarter, Lunquist E, Naval Forces, June 2012

The long, cylindrical streamlined torpedo shape is common to many underwater vehicles (UUV). And since the standard submarine torpedo tube is 533mm in diameter, many systems intended for delivery using a submarine are limited to that diameter. There are inherent payload and energy storage limitations imposed by the maximum diameter of the 533mm vehicle. But while many UUvs with naval applications available today have the shape and diameter of a torpedo there are new systems that are considerably larger. Modularity and open architecture mean that basic platforms can be configured for civilian or military use.

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Run Silent, Run Deep, Run Solo

January 31, 2012
Edwards J, Run Silent, Run Deep, Run Solo, Robotic Trends, Jan 2012

Autonomous underwater vehicles can go where humans fear to dive, but communications remains a challenge.

High-flying drones, such as General Atomic’s Predator, create headlines in places like Iraq and Afghanistan. But cruising stealthily beneath the waves is an equally impressive fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). These vessels are helping organizations, including the U.S. Navy, major oil companies, and various scientific research bodies retrieve vital information, deactivate mines, support repair and maintenance operations, and handle an array of other vital tasks more efficiently, and in many instances more safely, than would be possible if manned vessels or divers were used.

“Any unmanned application has tremendous benefits,” says Dr. Rand LeBouvier, a retired Navy captain who now works in the government military sector at Bluefin Robotics Corp., an AUV manufacturer located in Quincy, Mass. “In addition to the traditional dull, dirty, [and] dangerous applications, as well as saving manpower, money, and time, unmanned underwater systems give you access to places you would never be able to go with a manned system.” LeBouvier also notes that sensor-loaded AUVs are bringing to fruition a centuries-old dream of generations of sailors and marine researchers: “a transparent ocean.”

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AUVs: From idea to implementation

November 7, 2011
Stauffer, AUVs: From idea to implementation, MIT News, 7 Nov 2011

Since the 1970s, when early autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) were developed at MIT, Institute scientists have tackled various barriers to robots that can travel autonomously in the deep ocean. This four-part series examines current MIT efforts to refine AUVs’ artificial intelligence, navigation, stability and tenacity.

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Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

October 18, 2011
Cruz N, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, InTech, Oct 2011

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Edited by: Nuno A. Cruz

ISBN 978-953-307-432-0, Hard cover, 258 pages
Publisher: InTech
Publication date: October 2011
Subject: Ocean Engineering

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are remarkable machines that revolutionized the process of gathering ocean data. Their major breakthroughs resulted from successful developments of complementary technologies to overcome the challenges associated with autonomous operation in harsh environments. Most of these advances aimed at reaching new application scenarios and decreasing the cost of ocean data collection, by reducing ship time and automating the process of data gathering with accurate geo location. With the present capabilities, some novel paradigms are already being employed to further exploit the on board intelligence, by making decisions on line based on real time interpretation of sensor data. This book collects a set of self contained chapters covering different aspects of AUV technology and applications in more detail than is commonly found in journal and conference papers. They are divided into three main sections, addressing innovative vehicle design, navigation and control techniques, and mission preparation and analysis. The progress conveyed in these chapters is inspiring, providing glimpses into what might be the future for vehicle technology and applications.

Table of Contents

Development of a Vectored Water-Jet-Based Spherical Underwater Vehicle
Shuxiang Guo and Xichuan Lin

Development of a Hovering-Type Intelligent Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, P-SURO
Ji-Hong Li, Sung-Kook Park, Seung-Sub Oh, Jin-Ho Suh, Gyeong-Hwan Yoon and Myeong-Sook Baek

Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Main Parts of a Hybrid-Driven Underwater Glider PETREL
Wu Jianguo, Zhang Minge and Sun Xiujun

Real-Time Optimal Guidance and Obstacle Avoidance for UMVs
Oleg A. Yakimenko and Sean P. Kragelund

Formation Guidance of AUVs Using Decentralized Control Functions
Matko Barisic, Zoran Vukic and Nikola Miskovic

Modeling and Motion Control Strategy for AUV
Lei Wan and Fang Wang

Fully Coupled 6 Degree-of-Freedom Control of an Over-Actuated Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
Matthew Kokegei, Fangpo He and Karl Sammut

Short-Range Underwater Acoustic Communication Networks
Gunilla Burrowes and Jamil Y. Khan

Embedded Knowledge and Autonomous Planning: The Path Towards Permanent Presence of Underwater Networks
Pedro Patrón, Emilio Miguelañez and Yvan R. Petillot

Deep-Sea Fish Behavioral Responses to Underwater Vehicles: Differences Among Vehicles, Habitats and Species
Franz Uiblein

Mapping and Dilution Estimation of Wastewater Discharges Based on Geostatistics Using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
Patrícia Ramos and Nuno Abreu

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Seminar on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

May 11, 2011
Vijay S, Seminar on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles,PESCE Mandya, May 2011

Introduction

An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is a robotic device that is driven through the water by a propulsion system, controlled and piloted by an onboard computer, and maneuverable in three dimensions. This level of control, under most  environmental conditions, permits the vehicle to follow precise preprogrammed trajectories whenever and whenever required. Sensors onboard the AUV sample the ocean as the AUV moves through it, providing the ability to make both spacial and time series measurements. Sensor data collected by an AUV is automatically geospacially and temporally referenced and normally of superior quality. multiple vehicle surveys increase productivity, can insure adequate temporal and spacial sampling, and provide a means of investigating the coherence of the ocean in time and space.

Autonomous underwater vehicle fall in to mobile robotics sector and are brilliant importance to present world military and commercial requirements. This paper gives a glimpse on autonomous underwater vehicles and its applications.

An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a robot which travels underwater without requiring input from an operator. AUVs constitute part of a larger group of undersea systems known as unmanned underwater vehicles, a classification that includes non-autonomous remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) - controlled and powered from the surface by an operator/pilot via an umbilical or using remote control. In military applications AUVs more often referred to simply as unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs).

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Naval Oceanography in Mine Warfare

May 9, 2011
White J, Naval Oceanography in Mine Warfare, MINWARA, May 9, 2011

Commander Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command presentation at the May 2011 Mine Warfare Association (MINWARA) conference

Overview

  • Naval Oceanography plays a critical role in Mine Warfare
  • Our support has evolved far beyond our legacy roles. Naval Oceanography is beginning to play a major role in mine hunting and contact management.
  • Our capabilities are in great demand for both Maritime Homeland Defense (MHD) and overseas contingencies
  • Naval Oceanography gives the Navy Mine Warfare home field advantage everywhere
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Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

March 13, 2011
Hyakudome T. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, Vol. 8, No. 1 (2011) ISSN 1729-8806, pp 131-139, InTech

Abstract

There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things.

  1. Seawater and Water Pressure Environment
  2. Sink
  3. There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations
  4. Global Positioning System cannot use
  5. Radio waves cannot use.

In the paper, outline of above and how to deal about it are explained.

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Dummy's Guide to Marine Technology

March 31, 2007
Rosenthal B, Dummy's guide to Marine Technology, MTS, 2007

Glossary of Marine Technology Terms

This glossary was originally developed by MTS member Brock Rosenthal as the “Dummy's Guide to Marine Technology.” We will continue to build on Brock's work by adding terms when appropriate.

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Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: Trends and Transformations

October 31, 2005
Curtin T, Crimmins D, Curcio J, Benjamin M, Roper C, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: Trends and Transformations, Marine Technology Society Journal, Fall 2005

A B S T R A C T
Three examples of inter-agency cooperation utilizing current generation, individual Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are described consistent with recent recommendations of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. The first steps in transforming individual AUVs into adaptive, networked systems are underway. To realize an affordable and deployable system, a network-class AUV must be designed with cost–size constraints not necessarily applied in developing solo AUVs. Vehicle types are suggested based on function and ocean operating regime: surface layer, interior and bottom layer. Implications for platform, navigation and control subsystems are explored and practical formulations for autonomy and intelligence are postulated for comparing performance and judging behavior. Laws and
conventions governing intelligent maritime navigation are reviewed and an autonomous controller with conventional collision avoidance behavior is described. Network-class cost constraints can be achieved through economies of scale. Productivity and efficiency in AUV manufacturing will increase if constructive competition is maintained. Constructive strategies include interface and operating standards. Professional societies and industry trade groups have a leadership role to play in establishing public, open standards.

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Open Architecture, Dual Commercial/Military Use of Large Displacement Unmanned Undersea Vehicles

October 31, 2004
NDIA Undersea Warfare Division, "Open Architecture, Dual Commercial Military Use Of Large Displacment UUVs," Oct 2004

Executive Summary
The Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) Program Manager for Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUVs) (PMS 403) requested the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Undersea Warfare Division conduct a study on the potential for a large displacement UUV to be commercially designed for dual use such that it had commercial enterprise viability and also be a platform to test military payloads during periodic fleet battle experiments.

Major issues.

(1) The UUV is an important and versatile transformational element that can bring unique capabilities to the Navy of the future, particularly in pre-emptive and first response. It has the potential to become an essential part in the Navy’s FORCEnet concept in providing real-time information to gain an asymmetric advantage.

(2) Realization of the full potential of the UUV as a truly Autonomous Undersea Vehicle (AUV) in warfare will begin with a transition to a large displacement vehicle. The capability of small displacement UUVs will greatly limit what UUVs can provide as multi-mission assets and limit their true autonomy. Larger displacement UUVs must be integrated into new platform designs such that they can be viable organic assets. Utility as a force multiplier must be evident or the large footprint of a large displacement UUV and its support equipment will not be allocated space in future warship designs.

(3) The expanding commercial market must be leveraged to ensure that new systems can be developed in an affordable manner, using commercial standards. An expanding commercial market enables companies to provide systems that have military application while at the same time being commercially marketable.

Technical market research on a number of existing UUV programs provided information to assess our business cases from a broad range of designers, manufacturers, missions and users. They ranged from large Defense suppliers to small research companies, Navy and academic research laboratories. The researched historical programs revealed, many successes and failures, albeit with limited operational missions and customers. These programs provided
insight into the development and analysis of business cases.

Critical success factors and barriers. We found that the commercial market for AUVs would probably be increasing in robustness in the next five to ten years; however, competition, particularly foreign, would be keen with more commercial firms entering the marketplace.

Potential UUV Business Cases. The team postulated and analyzed a family of cases. These included:

(1) Traditional Government Procurement,

(2) Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Vehicle with a Short Term Government Lease,

(3) A COTS Vehicle Modified for Navy Use with a Long-Term Lease, and,

(4) Commercial-Navy Enterprise Partnership. The analysis of these cases included Cost, Technical, Schedule, and Programmatic factors. These were further broken down into sub-factors. Costs included development, construction
supportability, operation, damage//loss, indemnification and cost risk.

Technical factors included Common standards for payload flexibility, vehicle standards, operational requirements, operational security, and technical risk. Schedule factors included time to field the system, operational schedule and vehicle availability, and schedule risk.

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Open Archetecture, Dual Commercial Military Use Of Large Displacement UUVs - Vehicle Appendix

October 31, 2004
NDIA Undersea Warfare Division, "Open Archetecture, Dual Commercial Military Use Of Large Displacement UUVs - Vehicle Appendix," Oct 2004

Large Diameter Vehicle Listing

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AUV'S - The Maturity of the Technology

May 31, 2000
Wernli R, AUV'S - The Maturity of the Technology, SPAWAR, May 2000

The development of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), and their introduction into the military and offshore markets, has been a slow and costly process. This paper will provide an overview of those using and developing AUVs, discuss the state-of-the-art, and provide a projection on where the technology is heading and the hurdles it must overcome to reach maturity.

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